Access Control

Techniques To Approach Least Privilege

Author: Matthew Keith Carter (Oracle)

  • Techniques To Approach Least Privilege

    Access Control

    Techniques To Approach Least Privilege



This article will describe the lifecycle and techniques that access control practitioners should consider as they grant, validate, and refine permissions as they iterate toward least privilege. The article will compare just-in-time (JIT) approaches with long-standing permissions, balancing productivity with security. The article will explore the risks of using historical data to refine permissions. The reader will learn about refining least privilege in the context of an identity lifecycle and for a specific activity. The article will be agnostic in terms of cloud, hybrid and on-prem, as well as tools.

Keywords: Least Privilege, Access control, Just-in-time, PAM, CIEM, Access certification, Access Governance

How to Cite:

Carter, M. K., (2022) “Techniques To Approach Least Privilege”, IDPro Body of Knowledge 1(9). doi:

Published on
30 Sep 2022
Peer Reviewed
Techniques To Approach Least Privilege

Matthew K. Carter

© 2022 IDPro, Matthew K. Carter

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Reducing excessive permissions is a continuous effort. Workforce members accumulate permissions throughout their employment, and job requirements change regularly. People take on temporary assignments, and organizations are typically better at granting permissions than taking them away. SaaS and IaaS providers are constantly changing the surface area of permissions that customers need to manage. It is a challenging balance to give employees, partners, and customers a sufficient level of privilege to digital resources without leaving an organization open to risk. The principle of least privilege is a hypothetical, best-case scenario of a human or non-human actor having only the permissions required to perform a task at the time it needs to be performed. Understanding techniques to create and refine permissions can help you approach least privilege and reduce the risk of an overly-permissive posture.

This article will discuss least privilege in the context of identity lifecycle and building policy for specific activities. We will examine the advantages of long and short-term permission assignments, considering techniques like just-in-time (JIT) permissions. We will utilize roles as a way of grouping together permissions related to identity and activities. This utilization is a natural extension of Role-Based Access Control (RBAC), though not all organizations use roles to model permissions in the same way. Roles provide a natural way to encapsulate multiple permissions to reduce maintenance versus assigning multiple permissions to a human or non-human principal. We will contrast least privilege applied to RBAC and Policy-Based Access Control (PBAC), but roles will be the primary mechanism for grouping permissions in this article.


Least Privilege - “The principle that a security architecture should be designed so that each entity is granted the minimum system resources and authorizations that the entity needs to perform its function.” 1

Account Takeover - Account takeover is a form of identity theft and fraud, where a malicious third party successfully gains access to a user’s account credentials. 2

Access Certification - Certification is the ongoing review of who has which accesses (i.e., the business process to verify that access rights are correct). 2

Privileged Access Management - A mechanism for managing temporary access for accounts with high-risk permissions. PAM often involves check-out and check-in of a credential generated for a single use.

Just-in-time (JIT) access - a technique where a credential or a permission is granted to a principal for a temporary timeframe when they need the permission to perform an activity. Access is revoked once the activity is complete, limiting its usage.

Zero Standing Privilege (ZSP) - a state where JIT access is used for all permissions and no long-standing permissions are assigned to principals.

Cloud Infrastructure Entitlement Management (CIEM) - a categorization of technologies focused on managing the granting, verification, and refinement of permissions for cloud and hybrid technologies. CIEM is often seen as a component of Identity Governance and Administration (IGA).

Infrastructure-as-code - the process of managing and provisioning computer data centers through machine-readable definition files rather than physical hardware configuration or interactive configuration tools. 3

Least Privilege in the Identity Lifecycle

Least privilege can be applied at every stage of the identity lifecycle. Birthright entitlements should be continuously refined to help new employees to the workforce (joiners) 4 be more productive on their first day while not giving excessive permissions that an inexperienced employee could accidentally misuse. Employees who change jobs (movers) inherit new permissions. They may require a ramp down of their previous job’s permissions during their transition, which can cause delays in permission revocation until the transition is complete. These delays can put companies at risk of violating the principle of separation of duties (SoD) if the new job permissions create a toxic combination with the previous job role. Departing employees (leavers) still need limited access to company assets, such as access to paystubs and W-2s. Ensuring the former employee’s post-employment credential has limited permissions may avoid damages.

One misconception is that striving for least privilege in the workforce is due to a lack of trust in employees. Least privilege actually protects employees and employers by limiting their respective exposure. A new employee is often granted a set of birthright permissions based on their job assignment. The permissions that are available to that employee should be continually refined to add or remove permissions to better align with employee needs as they progress in their tenure. A surplus of permissions can result in exploitation. An employee is more likely to notice an account takeover if they are actively using a permission, as they are more likely to observe changes to the resource.

In order to align the assigned permissions with the ever-shifting target of least privilege, organizations need to continually refine permissions granted through birthright and access requests. If these birthright permissions are managed through roles, the roles need to be analyzed for excessive permissions. If the roles do not apply consistently to the principals that the roles are assigned to, the roles should be refactored so that a role is representative of the activities that the principal needs to perform. A deficit of permissions will often cause productivity loss, so the risk of each permission needs to be evaluated to find the balance.

Self-service access requests can incorporate least privilege approaches to ensure that temporary lifespans for entitlements are used for one-time actions. Long-standing permissions granted through self-service access requests are reviewed during access certification along with birthright permissions to refine permission, regardless of when the permission was granted. Temporary access might involve Privileged Access Management (PAM) or JIT permission techniques described below.

During the Access Certification process, employees review who has access to resources. One guiding concept is removing unnecessary permissions that might create risk for an organization. This concept is one dimension of least privilege, where human and non-human entities are evaluated for what each has access to. Managers and application owners are responsible for refining permissions to find the balance between productivity and security. This risk evaluation is what Access Governance solutions are built to achieve. Cloud Infrastructure Entitlement Management (CIEM) solutions also provide tools to help refine permissions for workforce employees.

Unused permissions do not equate to unneeded permissions. Some activities are less frequent than a quarter, such as accessing tax documents, so avoid refinement based on static periods. Some activities may be less frequent than a year, such as activating a contingency plan, though hopefully, your company is rehearsing your business continuity planning.

Least Privilege for Activities

An activity, in this context, should be thought of as a set of resources and actions to perform a task. As an example, say you need to manage permissions for an infrastructure-as-code (IaC) process that creates multiple digital assets of different resource types to create an application. You also need to manage permissions to operate this new application after deployment. The inclination to execute the IaC process as “Admin” 5 is understandable, as introspecting and defining governing policies for an unfamiliar set of resources and actions can be time-consuming. However, the temptation to continually operate as a privileged user can result in long-standing over-permission that can be targeted by unauthorized privilege escalation.

An activity is often broken up into more granular actions and resources that are governed by the authorization system. For our IaC example, the process might contain create, modify, and delete actions for computing and data sources to set up and tear down the application. We will only consider the coarse-grained action-resource permissions in this article, for example, “create-compute” or “modify-database.” 6

Two techniques for building least privilege roles for activities are fail-then-add and record-then-replace . Each technique provides a different balance between security and productivity by limiting the usage of privileged access.

For the fail-then-add technique, the infrastructure-as-code (IaC) process starts with no permissions. The IaC process is run, and when it fails due to authorization, that permission is granted. This sequence is repeated until the IaC process runs to completion. While this brute force approach may seem inefficient, the artifact role that it produces can be used for subsequent runs of the IaC process and reliably achieves least privilege for this activity. In order for the technique to be viable, you must have a clear feedback mechanism for the needed permission and transactional rollback capability. This technique also requires the practitioner to have a clear understanding of the required activities. Loosely adding permissions without a good understanding of the activities will lead to privilege creep, as revocation of superfluous additions rarely occurs after getting things to work.

The preferable second technique is a record-then-replace approach, where the IaC process starts with a privileged role like “Admin” that allows all actions for every resource type in the IaC process. An event is recorded for each action taken by the IaC process via a mechanism like audit logs. Once the activity completes, you can extract the actions from the recorded events and assign the necessary permissions to a new “least privilege” role. Subsequent runs of the IaC process are performed with the new least privilege role, replacing the privileged “Admin” role. Using this new least privilege role gives you an activity-specific role that can be used for other principals.

Basing least privilege on historical events like audit logs has a potential downside of incorporating unrelated or unauthorized permissions into the least privilege role if the unrelated or unauthorized activity is ongoing with that principal when the recording takes place. Check your recorded permissions to verify that extraneous permissions haven’t crept into your least privilege role.

It’s important to separate out setup and destroy activity from operational activity. Setup and destroy are activities that may include privileged permissions that are excessive for human actors once the non-human activity is complete. For our IaC example, creating the compute and data storage, then modifying its policy may be a setup activity, while running queries and mutations are operational activity. Setup permissions are limited for the non-human IaC process. When recording operations from your audit logs, stop the recording after setup to define the setup role. This prevents the modify-policy permission from being included in the operational role, leaving only query-data and mutate-data. An operator with modify-policy could grant themselves permissions, thereby violating the principle of least privilege.

Work with your digital resource providers to set up notifications of changes to permissions. If your role contains any kind of permission set based on expressions like wildcards that allow new permissions to be automatically included, a change in resource permissions could introduce new risks and push you further away from least privilege.

Just-in-Time Permissions

Let’s consider the time component of least privilege. In general, a user principal having temporary access is more secure than long-standing access for the same permission. You will approach least privilege by only having the permission to execute an activity at the point-in-time the activity needs to be performed. Concurrent refinement of unnecessary permissions and a JIT approach to granting permissions bring us closer to least privilege. Keep in mind, however, that the overhead of managing temporary access and the productivity tax of having to ask each time may not make JIT a fit for every organization.

In a long-standing model, even if the role permissions are refined over time, the principal’s effective permissions track with the role’s permissions. The principal has the permission when they need it as the permission persists through the role assignment.

A graph of time (x axis) and permissions granted (y access) in a long-standing least privilege model.

Figure 1:Long-standing Least Privilege Model

Least privilege is an activity that must be evaluated at specific points in time when a principal must take an action or access protected information. In a JIT model, permissions are granted only for the period that they are needed to perform the activity, then are revoked. By separating temporary privileged access from long-standing role assignments and the permissions granted by the roles, there is less creep of excessive permissions for those long-standing roles.

A graph of time (x axis) and permissions granted (y access) in a just-in-time least privilege model.

Figure 2: Just-in-time Least Privilege Model

This JIT approach is analogous to Privileged Access Management (PAM) systems, which typically allows one to “check out” and “check in” a credential used to access a shared (and often sensitive) system. Instead of checking out a credential, though, the JIT approach enables the actor to check out a permission to be granted to perform the action. Alternatively, the JIT approach may allow the principal to check out the ability to assume a role with the necessary permissions to perform the activity. The permissions granted for that JIT access should also be continually refined.

The risks with long-standing permissions or role assignments are related to unauthorized privilege escalation. If a credential of the principal is compromised or another principal is able to assume the role with the permission, a privilege escalation breach occurs. A JIT approach can mitigate the risk of the privilege escalation, as the principal of the compromised credential would not have a long-standing permission. The principal requires the additional step of checking out the role or permission. This mitigation assumes that the same compromised credential cannot be used for the “checking out” of the role or permission needed to escalate privilege. Thus, best practice dictates that the JIT system requires an additional authentication factor. For example, if typical operations utilize a fingerprint biometric, the privilege escalation might require a hardware device token.

There is a balance between security, productivity, and convenience to consider when implementing least privilege. If the cost of building and maintaining refinement and JIT exceeds the impact of privilege escalation in your systems, you may choose to accept the risk of long-standing or unneeded permissions granted to principals. There is a productivity risk of being too surgical with permissions and interrupting work. Employees that have to constantly check out permissions to do their job may grow weary of the tax and find ways to circumvent the control.

Least Privilege Relation to Policy-Based Access Control

Typically, Policy-Based Access Control (PBAC) 7 lends itself well to least privilege as its rules tend to be more granular than RBAC with the specification of specific resources and actions in. For example, the following natural language statement is representative of a PBAC rule:

Allow read content if the reader’s clearance is higher than the content’s classification

This statement grants the read-content permission based on a conditional comparison of an identity attribute, the reader’s clearance, to a resource attribute, which is the classification of the content. This rule could be updated to approach least privilege, perhaps by specifying a smaller population of readers or specifying which instance of the content server. However, this negates some of the value of PBAC as you have to have rules for each enumerated instance of the content server. Least privilege becomes a balance with the centralized policy decision nature of PBAC and maintainability that comes from having rules that can apply to multiple abstractions.

PBAC lends itself to modeling least privilege in various dimensions. For example, to refine the content example toward least privilege, you might add a network expression that adds additional constraints on where readers can access content, or combine a risk engine score in a deny-override rule.

Allow read content if the reader’s clearance is higher than the content’s classification and client.ip in a specified range


Deny if read-content risk is greater than low

Refining a policy-based approach to access control may inherently require less refinement than an RBAC model over time. It does, however, require rigor toward auditing PBAC rules that may grant unnecessary access for a population or has a path that isn’t reachable. Access governance is less mature in PBAC than in RBAC, so there may be less choice from commercial offerings in this area.


Least privilege is an ever-shifting target that can act as a “north star” for your access governance teams to strive for in order to reduce the risk of unauthorized privilege escalation. Continuously refining permissions assigned during birthright, self-service access requests, and specific activities can limit the accumulation of privileged access that can be misused over time. Incorporating JIT strategies to grant permissions for short durations to achieve a temporary task reduces long-standing permissions. Organizations should consider the productivity risk from the over-refinement of permissions or the overhead of having to ask for permissions too frequently before investing in tools or processes. Monitor your provider’s permission model to ensure that newly introduced permissions do not introduce risk from your policies that use wildcards. As you commit to a role-based or policy-based access control model, your techniques for least privilege will vary, but the concepts will be consistent. Continuously evaluating these factors over the lifecycle of all identities and policies will reduce the surface area that can be exploited.

Author Bio

Matt Carter has worked in the identity and cloud security industry since joining Netegrity in 2000. Mr. Carter has worked in several roles, including product management, pre-sales, and implementation at companies like Oracle, AWS, and Axiomatics. Currently, he is a CIAM sales specialist at Okta. Matt has been active with IDPro as a certification test item writer and serves on the Book of Knowledge committee.

Matt Carter lives in greater Boston with his wife, two dogs, two cats, and has three kids in college. He is into pickleball, kayaking on the Charles river, and science fiction. Fun fact: Matt once ran with the bulls in flip-flops.

  1. NIST Information Technology Laboratory, “least priviledge,” Computer Security Resource Center glossary, (accessed 6 September 2022).

  2. Flanagan (Editor), H., (2021) “Terminology in the IDPro Body of Knowledge”, IDPro Body of Knowledge 1(8). doi: .

  3. Wikipedia contributors, "Infrastructure as code," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, (accessed September 6, 2022).

  4. More on Joiner, Mover, and Leaver is available in Cameron, A. & Grewe, O. (2022) “An Overview of the Digital Identity Lifecycle (v2)”, IDPro Body of Knowledge 1(7). doi: .

  5. “Admin” - shorthand term for a privileged user or role that has full control over a digital environment. The scope of “Admin” may vary, but represents a set of permissions that would allow a person controlling it to manipulate or damage assets and should be tightly controlled.

  6. An organization’s constraints for provisioning a resource like compute can be very specific in terms of policy. For instance, an organization may only want to allow a database to be created in a particular region, of a certain size, and with specific features enabled.

  7. More on Policy-Based Access Controls is available Mary K McKee, “Introduction to Policy-Based Access Controls (v2)” IDPro Body of Knowledge 1(8). doi: